There once was a time when a starving PhD student could improvise a new programming language and within a few years the entire world was using it. That time is gone. Today, as evidenced by the rising popularity of languages like Kotlin and Go, seemingly the only way a new programming language hits the big time is with the generous backing of a megacorp.
The question is whether this is an inherently bad thing.
The 1990s: the era of the freewheeling hacker
While this happened outside the web world, usually there was a big company lurking in the shadows. Bjarne Stroustrup, for example, started his work on C++ while a PhD student. By 1983, however, Stroustrup was using C++ at AT&T. As he recalled: